## The Photon-Nonphoton Universe Concept

### Photons and Nonphotons in Equilibrium

The fusion-fission postulate, together with the mass-energy and momentum conservation requirements, leads to a simple universe model where photons and nonphotons exist symbiotically. That is, a pair of photons may fuse to form a nonphoton which may later fission to return the same two photons to the universe. To establish the densities of photons and nonphotons that symbiotically come to equilibrium to form a 2.73 Kelvin universe, we follow the approach used by Bose to replicate Planck's black body photon spectrum. The energy of a particle is taken to equal an integer times ε, now a tiny quantum of energy that is much smaller than the average energy of microwave background photons. The figure shows how the family of nonphoton-spectrum curves tucks under Planck's curve for the photon spectrum.

Click to view a larger version of this figure

The average energies of the two particle-species in the 2.73 Kelvin universe are comparable, being of the order of a thousandth of an electron volt. The average nonphoton speed is found to be about 81% of photon speed. However, the total densities of the two species differ by a very large factor—one of the order of the ratio of the average microwave photon energy to that of the tiny ε-quantum. On the basis of the nonphoton gravity concept later discussed, we estimate that ratio to be about 10^{77}.

The estimated “dark energy” density of the ethereal nonphotons is about 10^{74} times that of the observed average energy density of ponderable matter and radiation in the universe. This large dark energy density ratio falls in the wide (10^{55} to 10^{120}) range compatible with quantum-mechanic considerations of the vacuum's energy. It may also be noted that a divergent chain reaction, where photons induce fission of nonphotons into photon pairs, offers an explanation of mini-big-bangs in portions of the infinite modeled universe. The matter and radiation in a 10-billion light-year radius sphere, for example, has an estimated inertial mass-energy equal to that of the photons born from the fission of all the nonphotons in a 32-meter radius sphere.

Continue reading >> Cosmological Photon Redshift