## The Photon-Nonphoton Universe Concept

### Cosmological Photon Redshift

The observed redshift of light that has traveled cosmological-scale distances is generally attributed to special relativistic Doppler effects. Being based on special relativistic point-like particle dynamics, the photon-nonphoton universe model also recognizes this type of redshift. However, we do not require that the observable universe be expanding to explain redshift as does a “big bang” scenario. How could redshift occur in the modeled universe which is not only infinite but also static when viewed on the largest cosmological scale?

Basically, as a photon emitted from a source travels to a detector, the tiny ε-quanta of the source photon are progressively lost via fusion with the quanta of the microwave background photons. Half of the mass-energy of the nonphoton debris thus formed equals that lost by the redshifted source photon. For small source-to-detector distances, this type of redshift is roughly proportional to distance. At large distances, the redshift tends to increase exponentially with distance. Thus a dark night sky is assured in an infinite static universe that is uniformly populated by photon sources. It is noted that if the near-exponential increase of redshift at large distances is used to compute a speed via the Doppler equation, the result might be interpreted as an acceleration of the rate of expansion of an expanding universe.

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