## The Photon-Nonphoton Universe Concept

### Nonphoton Gravity

The photon-nonphoton universe model assumes the bodies of solar-type systems present very thin targets to the ethereal nonphotons of 2.73 Kelvin space. On this basis, it is demonstrated that the Newtonian gravitational force between two bodies may be understood in terms of elastic collisions of nonphotons with the basic constituents (photonics) making up weighable (ponderable) matter. In essence, one body perturbs the isotrophy of the directional nonphoton flux that would otherwise exist to bombard a second body in its neighborhood. As a result of such anisotrophy, elastic impacts of nonphotons with a body's photonic constituents pushes each of the bodies toward the other.

Most of the mass of a solar system body is that of its nucleons. These particles are modeled by very thin rings of circulating photonics. Dynamic equilibrium requires that a ring's surface feels a pressure, P, that satisfies PV = Mc^{2}, where V and M represent the volume and the mass of a modeled nucleon. The model takes the ring surfaces to be impermeable to nonphotons, which hit and rebound from such surfaces to produce the pressure P. This, together with considerations of the uncertainty of the measured values of Newton's gravitational constant, permits the demonstration that gravitational force may be understood in terms of elastic impacts of nonphotons on the photonics in the thin-ring particles of ponderable matter. Because the constituent rings of ponderable matter bodies are so very thin, the bodies themselves present thin targets to the ethereal nonphotons. An estimate of the value of P sufficient to confine a thin ring's circulating photonics to its interior is ∼0.69 × 10^{64} dynes/cm^{2}.

Using the PV = Mc^{2} equation, multi-ring models of the electron, proton and neutron have been designed to conform with four of each particle's important properties: mass, charge, angular momentum and magnetic moment. According to these models, when seen in an inertial frame where an electron or a nucleon is at rest, the observer sees photonics moving in circular orbits, the system's mass-energy being that of the community of circulating photonics. We note that a nonphoton seen at rest may also be visualized as a system of photonics moving around a circle of a certain radius. As seen by an observer moving in the direction of the normal to the circle's plane, the photonics would move along helices on the cylinder generated by the moving circle. Thus nonphotons, like electrons and nucleons, may be visualized as a community of photonics moving along paths which look closed to observers in a nonphoton's rest frame.

It appears that all particle-types considered in constructing a photon-nonphoton universe model may be considered to be systems of constituents that are seen in all frames to move at the same speed—that of the speed of light. Since a system cannot move faster than its fastest constituent, we may understand why the speed limit of the particles of nature is c, the speed of light.

In contrast to Einstein's “warped space-time” approach to an understanding of gravity, the nonphoton gravity concept offers an explanation of Newtonian-level gravity in terms of elastic impacts of the copious and ethereal nonphotons on the photonics making up ponderable matter. Nonphoton Newtonian gravity necessarily assumes “thin targets” where only first collisions significantly contribute to gravitational force. To bring the nonphoton gravity concept into accord with the successes of Einstein's general relativity, consideration of bodies that present “thick targets” to nonphotons may be required.

Continue reading >> The Multiplicity of Nonphoton Roles